Lumen Bioscience, a Washington based biotechnology company, is developing an oral vaccine for Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) with funding from the USDA. The vaccine uses genetically modified spirulina which is an algae that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). IHNV is an economic problem for producers of salmon and trout in the Pacific Northwest. Vaccines are already available for IHNV, however their use is compromsed as it is costly, needs trained personnel, involves needles and tissue scarring which leads to a lower value of the seafood. A scaffolding has been developed in spirulina to trigger a response from the fish's immune system. The scaffold makes it look like a disease is present but would be non-infectious. AAHL staff are assisting this company with delivering the vaccine and testing its efficacy when fish are exposed to the virus.
https://www.lumen.bio/usda-grant ... https://www.feednavigator.com/Article/2018/06/29/USDA-grant-supports-dev...